On the periodic table, boron falls between beryllium and carbon and bears a strong resemblance chemically to the latter. A unique property of boron is that it is produced solely as an aftereffect of cosmic ray spallation (a process resulting from the impact of cosmic rays on matter), instead of the more typical stellar nucleosynthesis (nuclear fission of other elements). As a low abundance element on Earth, Boron is concentrated by the water-solubility of its common naturally occurring compounds known as borate minerals. Borate minerals are mined industrially in the form of evaporates like borax and kernite. It is found in the greatest abundance in Turkey, which is the world leader in boron mineral production. Agriculturally, Boron compounds are used for fertilizers and sodium perborate bleaches. Boron is also an essential element to mammalian/human life, as it plays an important role in metabolizing calcium, and boron deficiency is often cited as a factor in osteoporosis.