General ACS reagent grade hydrochloric acid with a 36.5%-38% concentration has numerous industrial applications due to its potent corrosive effects and utility as a chemical reagent since the Industrial Revolution of the mid-to-late 19th century. Higher concentrations beyond 40% are chemically possible to achieve, but due to the high evaporation rate that special considerations for storage and handling must be made. Pressurized storage and cooling are necessary for any concentration of 40% or higher in order for the reagent to maintain its concentration percentage. Production of hydrochloric acid is a relatively simple matter of dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. Due the numerous ways that hydrogen chloride can be produced, there are many precursors to producing hydrochloric acid, and large scale production of hydrochloric acid is typically integrated with industrial production of other chemicals and reagents. Additionally, hydrochloric acid can be added to various solutions in order to regulate their overall acidity (pH), particularly in the food, water treatment, and pharmaceutical industries.
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