Sodium oxalate is the sodium or salt component of oxalic acid. Typically sodium oxalate is an odorless, white, and crystalline powder that decomposes at extremely high temperatures. Sodium oxalate is typically used as a reducing agent in most natural metabolic processes in plants and vegetables, and may also often be used as a primary standard for the standardization of potassium permanganate solutions. Like most other oxalates, sodium oxalates is highly toxic to humans and, like the hydrofluoric dip, should be handled with extreme care and caution or otherwise avoided altogether. If accidentally exposed to or improperly handled, it can cause burning pain in the mouth, throat, and stomach, vomiting blood, headaches, muscle cramps, convulsions, severe drops in blood pressure, shock, comas, heart failure, and even death. It can also be used to remove calcium ions from the blood plasma, which can prevent blood from clotting and cause severely impair brain function.