Tris hydrochloride is a white crystalline powder that is commonly utilized as a buffer component in biochemical processes. It is soluble in water and has a useful pH range of 7.0 to 9.0. Sterilization can be accomplished through autoclaving or filtration. It is nonflammable but it can cause irritation so care is advised while handling the substance. It is a widely available and low-cost option for laboratories that wish to perform molecular biology experiments. The powder may serve as a buffer during phenol extraction of RNA or DNA. It can take on the same role in the SDS-PAGE process, particularly with separation of gels. It can be useful in antigen retrieval when paired with urea. Researchers are discovering more possible applications for the substance. For instance, it can inhibit response in smooth muscles despite motor nerve stimulation. Temperature must be monitored as its pH increases with a drop in temperature.