Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid and ascorbate (which is the anion of ascorbic acid), is an indispensable nutrient for human beings and some other specific animal species. Vitamin C defines several vitamers that have vitamin C action in animals, as well as ascorbic acid and its salts. Both ascorbate and ascorbic acid naturally exist in the body when either of them is presented into cells, since the forms interconvert based on ph. Vitamin C is a known cofactor in at least eight enzymatic responses, including several collagen synthesis responses that cause the most severe symptoms of scurvy when dysfunctional. In animals, these responses are expressly significant in wound-healing and in avoiding bleeding from capillaries. Ascorbate can also act as an antioxidant against oxidative stress.